HIV associated neurocognitive disorders
HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which is a new term emerged from an international conference in 2006 1, correspond to a group of clinical syndromes related to the HIV infection in the cells of the nervous system expressing different degrees of impairment of cognition and associated functioning. They are part of neuroAIDS.
Three different clinical conditions were defined 1-3:
- asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI): characterised by impairment in cognitive function clinically diagnosed, however the everyday functioning is not affected.
- mild neurocognitive disorder (MND): characterised by impairment in cognitive function clinically diagnosed and mild interference in everyday functioning.
- HIV-associated dementia (HAD): characterised by marked impairment in cognitive function which significantly limits abilities to function in daily work, home and social activities. It was previously referred as AIDS dementia complex and is the only condition which express clear recognisable features of HIV encephalopathy on MRI.
- 1. Antinori A, Arendt G, Becker JT et-al. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology. 2007;69 (18): 1789-99. doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000287431.88658.8b - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Clifford DB, Ances BM. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13 (11): 976-86. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70269-X - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Gannon P, Khan MZ, Kolson DL. Current understanding of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders pathogenesis. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 2011;24 (3): 275-83. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e32834695fb - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation