HIV-associated salivary gland disease
Citation, DOI & article data
HIV-associated salivary gland disease is a condition characterized by lymphatic infiltration of the salivary glands, especially the parotids. This condition of HIV patients can be part of the diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. The condition is one of the most important AIDS-associated oral lesions.
The incidence of HIV-associated salivary gland disease has been reported to be as high 48% in developing territories in those with HIV-1 infections 3.
HIV-associated salivary gland disease generally presents with:
- unilateral/bilateral facial swelling
- swelling of salivary glands: a cause of bilateral salivary gland enlargement
As a consequence of HIV infection, lymphoid infiltration into the gland, along with lymphoid epithelial lesion development are responsible for salivary gland enlargement and xerostomia 4.
The benign lymphoepithelial/myoepithelial lesions of HIV-associated salivary gland disease comprise intranodal cysts lined with epithelial cells.
Radiological features are non-specific.
- numerous hypoattenuating/anechoic regions without posterior acoustic enhancement
- anechoic cysts 2
- usually bilateral salivary gland enlargement with intraglandular cystic and solid masses
- increase in size and number of cervical lymph nodes 2
Treatment and prognosis
Antiretroviral therapy was useful in the treatment of HIV-related lymphoepithelial parotid cysts 4. There is reportedly a good prognosis in children 2.
History and etymology
HIV-associated salivary gland disease was first used by Schiødt to characterize a swelling of major salivary glands with a complaint of dry mouth in patients with HIV, in absence of xerogenic agents or medications 3.
- 1. Meer S, Meer. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Salivary Gland Pathology: An Update. (2019) Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2019.01.001 - Pubmed
- 2. Wolfgang Dähnert. Radiology Review Manual. (2020) ISBN: 9781609139438
- 3. Jeffers L, Webster-Cyriaque JY. Viruses and salivary gland disease (SGD): lessons from HIV SGD. (2011) Advances in dental research. 23 (1): 79-83. doi:10.1177/0022034510396882 - Pubmed
- 4. Nizamuddin, Imran, Koulen, Peter, McArthur, Carole P.. Contribution of HIV Infection, AIDS, and Antiretroviral Therapy to Exocrine Pathogenesis in Salivary and Lacrimal Glands. (2018) International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 19 (9): 2747. doi:10.3390/ijms19092747 - Pubmed
- 5. Jeffers L, Webster-Cyriaque JY. Viruses and salivary gland disease (SGD): lessons from HIV SGD. (2011) Advances in dental research. 23 (1): 79-83. doi:10.1177/0022034510396882 - Pubmed