Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)
On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC exceeds 1.8 cm, at a level 2 cm above the intersection of diaphragm and IVC, left ventricular enlargement is suggested 1.
Later investigators suggest this should be increased to 1.9 cm to decrease the number of false positives 2.
Prior to their publication in 1951, LV enlargement was suggested when the posterior LV border is more than 1.5 cm posterior to the IVC.
- 1. Brant WE, Helms C. Fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2012) ISBN:1608319113. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Freeman V, Mutatiri C, Pretorius M et-al. Evaluation of left ventricular enlargement in the lateral position of the chest using the Hoffman and Rigler sign. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2003;14 (3): 134-7. Pubmed citation