Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)
Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Ronil Chandra had no recorded disclosures.View Ronil Chandra's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Vincent Tatco had no recorded disclosures.View Vincent Tatco's current disclosures
On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC exceeds 1.8 cm, at a level 2 cm above the intersection of diaphragm and IVC, left ventricular enlargement is suggested 1.
Later investigators suggest this should be increased to 1.9 cm to decrease the number of false positives 2.
Prior to their publication in 1951, LV enlargement was suggested when the posterior LV border was more than 1.5 cm posterior to the IVC.
History and etymology
Richard ("Dick") B Hoffman (1937-2011) and Leo George Rigler (1896-1979 4), American radiologists, described their eponymous sign in a paper in 1965 3.
- 1. Brant WE, Helms C. Fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2012) ISBN:1608319113. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Freeman V, Mutatiri C, Pretorius M et-al. Evaluation of left ventricular enlargement in the lateral position of the chest using the Hoffman and Rigler sign. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2003;14 (3): 134-7. Pubmed citation
- 3. Hoffman R, Rigler L. Evaluation of the left ventricular enlargement in the lateral projection of the chest. Radiology 1965: 93–100.
- 4. Jacobson HG. In memoriam. Leo G. Rigler, M.D. 1896-1979. Radiology 1980;135:247-248.