Hunt and Hess grading system

The Hunt and Hess scale describes the severity of subarachnoid haemorrhage, and is used as a predictor of survival.

  • grade 1
    • asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness
    • 70% survival
  • grade 2
    • moderate to severe headache; neck stiffness; no neurologic deficit except cranial nerve palsy
    • 60% survival
  • grade 3
    • drowsy; minimal neurologic deficit
    • 50% survival
  • grade 4
    • stuporous; moderate to severe hemiparesis; possibly early decerebrate rigidity and vegetative disturbances
    • 20% survival
  • grade 5
    • deep coma; decerebrate rigidity; moribund
    • 10% survival

History and etymology

It was first described in 1968 by two neurosurgeons from Ohio, USA:

  • William Edward Hunt (1921-1999), neurologist and neurosurgeon; also of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
  • Robert M Hess (fl. 2018) neurosurgeon

See also

Stroke and intracranial haemorrhage
Share article

Article information

rID: 3878
Tag: eponym
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:

Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads

Updating… Please wait.

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.