Hunt and Hess grading system

Dr Aaron Rayan and A.Prof Frank Gaillard et al.

The Hunt and Hess scale describes the severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and is used as a predictor of survival.

  • grade 1
    • asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness
    • 70% survival
  • grade 2
    • moderate to severe headache; neck stiffness; no neurologic deficit except cranial nerve palsy
    • 60% survival
  • grade 3
    • drowsy; minimal neurologic deficit
    • 50% survival
  • grade 4
    • stuporous; moderate to severe hemiparesis; possibly early decerebrate rigidity and vegetative disturbances
    • 20% survival
  • grade 5
    • deep coma; decerebrate rigidity; moribund
    • 10% survival

History and etymology

It was first described in 1968 by two neurosurgeons from Ohio, USA:

  • William Edward Hunt (1921-1999), neurologist and neurosurgeon; also of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
  • Robert M Hess (fl. 2018) neurosurgeon

See also

Stroke and intracranial haemorrhage
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Article information

rID: 3878
Tag: eponym
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:

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