Citation, DOI and article data
Hydronephrosis in fetuses and newborns has specific causes that are covered in a separate article.
The term hydroureteronephrosis (or hydronephroureterosis) may be used when the dilatation occurs in the presence of hydroureter.
Following the identification of hydronephrosis, appropriate further investigations must be undertaken to establish an underlying cause, with potential etiologies including everything from urolithiasis, UPJ obstruction, malignancy such as cervical cancer and retroperitoneal fibrosis.
The radiologist may also play a part in procedures to treat the harmful effects of uncorrected hydronephrosis on renal function, such as placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy tube or antegrade ureteric stent insertion.