Last revised by Ian Bickle on 5 Jul 2023

A hydropneumothorax (plural: hydropneumothoraces) (or less commonly pneumohydrothorax (plural: pneumohydrothoraces)) is the term given to the concurrent presence of a pneumothorax and pleural effusion (i.e. hydrothorax) (i.e. gas and fluid) in the pleural space.

It may arise in various situations which include

On an erect chest radiograph, recognition of hydropneumothorax can be rather easy - and is classically shown as a gas-fluid level. On the supine radiograph, this may be more challenging where a sharp pleural line is bordered by increased opacity lateral to it within the pleural space may sometimes suggest towards the diagnosis 3,4

Sonographic findings include 7;

For a gas-fluid level on plain radiograph consider:

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