Hypercontracting (nutcracker) oesophagus

Dr Dan J Bell and Radswiki et al.

Hypercontracting (nutcracker) oesophagus is a motility disorder of the oesophagus. This condition is primarily diagnosed with manometry with high intra-oesophageal pressure and normal peristalsis. Most patients will have a normal barium swallow

Hypercontracting oesophagus ("nutcracker oesophagus") differs from diffuse oesophageal spasm ("corkscrew oesophagus"). 

Hypercontracting oesophagus occurs in 10% of patients with non-cardiac chest pain. 

Presentation includes chest pain, dysphagia, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

Aetiology is unknown but may be related to gastro-oesophageal reflux or stress 2.  

Barium swallows are usually normal. A minority of patients may demonstrate features of non-specific oesophageal motility disorder 1,2.  

Oesophageal pathology
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Article information

rID: 12800
Section: Signs
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Nutcracker oesophagus
  • Nutcracker esophagus
  • Hypercontracting oesophagus
  • Hypercontracting esophagus
  • Jackhammer oesophagus

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