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At the time the article was created Frank Gaillard had no recorded disclosures.View Frank Gaillard's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Craig Hacking had the following disclosures:
- Philips Australia, Paid speaker at Philips Spectral CT events (ongoing)
These were assessed during peer review and were determined to not be relevant to the changes that were made.View Craig Hacking's current disclosures
Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone in the body. It can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features, predominantly involving the skeletal system.
It accounts for the 'H' in the popular mnemonic for lucent bone lesions FEGNOMASHIC.
Parathyroid hormone affects multiple organs. The most common symptoms are bone pain, chronic fatigue, polyuria, headache, decreased concentration and depression. Also, patients can present with complications like renal stones, fractures, cardiac arrhythmia, and hypertension.
Hyperparathyroidism is supported biochemically by either an elevated serum parathyroid hormone level or an inappropriately normal level in the setting of hypercalcemia.
Hyperparathyroidism can occur in the context of the following conditions from parathyroid hyperplasia or less commonly multiple parathyroid adenomas 5:
Increased levels of the parathyroid hormone lead to increased osteoclastic activity. The resultant bone resorption produces cortical thinning (subperiosteal resorption) and osteopenia.
autonomous parathyroid adenoma caused by the chronic overstimulation of hyperplastic glands in renal insufficiency
classically affects the radial aspects of the proximal and middle phalanges of the 2nd and 3rd fingers
medial aspect of tibia, femur, humerus
lamina dura: floating teeth (not specific)
inferior surface of calcaneus and clavicle
intracortical resorption: cigar/oval-shaped or tunnel-shaped radiolucency in the cortex
salt and pepper sign in the skull (pepper pot skull)
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