Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy

Dr Yuranga Weerakkody and Dr Henry Knipe et al.

Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare complication. 

Hyperperfusion occurs in ~7.5% (range 1-14%) of patients but only a minority (~1.5%) of patients are symptomatic 1,2, with incidence being reported slightly more after CEA (~2%) than after CAS (~1%) 3

Presentation is usually within the first week of surgery but has been reported up to a month after surgery 1. Although there is a varied clinical spectrum, common features include 1,4:

The pathophysiological mechanism is unknown but thought to be secondary to increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) from a loss of cerebral autoregulation 1,2. Hyperperfusion is defined as CBF >100% above preoperative baseline but patients have been reported to be symptomatic with increases of 20-40% 1,4

A similar syndrome can also develop after other procedures, such as angioplasty for MCA stenosis (ispilateral syndrome) 5 or repair of aortic stenosis (bilateral syndrome) 6.

CT

Features are consistent with cerebral oedema and/or intracerebral haemorrhage ipsilateral to the side of the carotid artery procedure 4,7. The cerebral oedema is classically of the white matter and is hypodense, diffuse, and may or may not have associated mass effect 4,7. The intracerebral haemorrhages are hyperdense and may either be petechial or large in morphology 4,7.  

CT perfusion

Characteristic ipsilateral features:

  • increased CBF, by definition >100% increase compared with preoperative values 4,8
  • increased CBV 8
  • shortened MTT 8
  • shortened TTP/Tmax 8
MRI

MRI demonstrates the same ipsilateral features as CT and often closely resembles PRES 4:

  • T1: diffusely hypointense in affected regions 3,4
  • T1 C+ (Gd): often no enhancement seen 4, although leptomeningeal enhancement has been reported 3
  • T2 / FLAIR: diffusely hyperintense in affected regions 3,4
  • DWI: usually normal 4

Regions of haemorrhage have varying MRI signal characteristics depending on age (see ageing blood on MRI).

Management should focus on prevention, with particular attention to blood pressure management 7,9. However, if hyperfusion syndrome does manifest, antihypertensive medications such as labetalol and clonidine have been useful, and anti-epileptic medications may provide symptomatic relief to those with seizures 9.

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Article information

rID: 48821
Section: Syndromes
Tag: cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Reperfusion syndrome
  • Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid artery stenting
  • Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid intervention
  • Reperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy
  • Hyperperfusion syndrome

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