Hypoparathyroidism

Last revised by Mostafa Elfeky on 10 Sep 2020

Hypoparathyroidism results from reduced secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. It results in hypocalcemia.

Hypoparathyroidism has an estimated prevalance 37 per 100,000 person-years and incidence of 0.8 per 100 000 person-years. It carries no increased risk of mortality. The majority of cases are due to complications from anterior neck surgery.4

  • tetany: peripheral paresthaesia, carpopedal spasm, seizures
  • emotional lability, depression and anxiety, psychosis
  • short stature

There are a number of causes of hypoparathyroidism 1:

  • iatrogenic, e.g. post parathyroidectomy or thyroidectomy
  • congenital absence of the parathyroid glands, which may be syndromic in thymic aplasia, or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (a.k.a. DiGeorge syndrome)
  • familial, e.g. autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1
  • idiopathic (probably autoimmune-mediated destruction)
  • parathyroid hormone (PTH) level: low
  • serum phosphate level: high
  • serum calcium level: low  

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