Ideberg classification of glenoid fossa fractures
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The Ideberg classification system is the most common system used to describe glenoid fossa and rim fractures 1. Glenoid fractures are uncommon fractures of the shoulder but are important to recognize as they are often associated with concomitant injuries to chest, head, brachial plexus and humerus 2.
The Ideberg classification is commonly used in research articles, but given it is a descriptive classification, it does not correlate specifically with prognosis or therapeutic intervention 3. Other glenoid fracture classifications include Euler and AO.
The classification was initially created on AP and lateral radiographs of the shoulder 4, but are now assessed on CT 5.
type I: rim fractures
type Ia: anterior rim fracture
type Ib: posterior rim fracture
type II: fracture line through glenoid fossa exiting scapula laterally
type III: fracture line through glenoid fossa exiting scapula superiorly
type IV: fracture line through glenoid fossa exiting scapula medially
type V: combinations
type Va: combination of types II and IV
type Vb: combination of types III and IV
type Vc: combination of types II, III, and IV
type VI: severe comminution
There are limitations with the Ideberg Classification of glenoid fossa fractures. It has low-to-moderate inter- and intra-observer reliability, as well as difficulty in its ability to classify all glenoid fracture patterns. The AO classification has been demonstrated to allow for reliable grading of glenoid fossa fractures with high inter- and intra-observer reliability in 84 patients using CT 1.
History and etymology
R Ideberg published the original classification in 1984 4,6 and was subsequently expanded by Goss and Mayo 5,7.