Incarcerated (also referred to as irreducible) is used to describe herniae, in which their contents are unable to pass back through the hernial opening to their anatomical site of origin.
History and etymology
Incarcerate is probably a retronym from incarceration, itself derived from 'incarceratus', a Medieval Latin word, a past participle form of incarcerare, which meant to put into prison. Ultimately it derived from the Latin words 'in', meaning in, and 'carcer', meaning a secluded place or prison 3.
- 1. Yang XF, Liu JL. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia. (2014) Annals of translational medicine. 2 (11): 110. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2014.11.05 - Pubmed
- 2. William Alexander Newman Dorland. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. (2018) ISBN: 9781416023647
- 3. Robert K. Barnhart, Sol Steinmetz. Chambers Dictionary of Etymology. (1999) ISBN: 9780550142306
- 4. Keeley JA, Kaji A, Kim DY, Putnam B, Neville A. Predictors of ischemic bowel in patients with incarcerated hernias. (2019) Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery. 23 (2): 277-280. doi:10.1007/s10029-019-01884-1 - Pubmed
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