Inferior gluteal artery
The inferior gluteal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It originates in the pelvis and supplies the gluteal region and thigh.
- origin: anterior division of the internal iliac artery
- location: pelvis, gluteal region, back of thigh
- supply: buttock and thigh
- main branches:
The inferior gluteal artery originates as a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It approaches the greater sciatic foramen by passing backwards through parietal pelvic fascia and between the S1 and S2 nerve roots. It then exits the pelvis through the foramen, below the piriformis muscle and above the superior gemellus. It travels inferiorly, lateral to the sciatic nerve and underneath the gluteus maximus.
- Muscular branches to the piriformis, gluteus maximus and obturator internus and the superior hamstrings.
- The companion artery to the sciatic nerve is a branch which is a reminant of the embryonic axial artery of the limb. It supplies the sciatic nerve. Developmentally this artery is the major supply to the posterior compartment of the thigh, and may sometimes persist as a large vessel.
- Trochanteric anastomoses: The artery contributes to the trochanteric anastomosis, which perfuses the head of the femur. Other contributing vessels include the superior gluteal artery and the lateral and medial circumflex arteries.
- Cruciate anastomoses: The inferior gluteal artery provides contribution to the cruciate anastomosis of the upper thigh, along with the lateral and medial circumflex artery, the anastomotic branch of the posterior branch of the obturator artery and the first perforating artery of the profunda femoris.
The artery terminates at the muscles it supplies, and continues to contribute to trochanteric and cruciate anastomoses.
It’s muscular supply includes the piriformis muscle, obturator internus, gluteus maximus and the superior hamstrings. It supplies the head of the femur and upper thigh and has a dedicated branch, which supplies the sciatic nerve.
The inferior gluteal artery and the internal pudendal artery may arise from a common stem from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery.
An inferior gluteal artery perforator flap may occasionaly be used in reconstruction of the breast.
The inferior gluteal artery may be injured in trauma, and has on occasion been known to form pseudoaneurysms.
Abdominal and pelvic anatomy
- skeleton of the abdomen and pelvis
- muscles of the abdomen and pelvis
- anterior abdominal wall (surface anatomy)
- posterior abdominal wall
- pelvic floor
- spaces of the abdomen and pelvis
- anterior abdominal wall
- posterior abdominal wall
- peritoneal ligaments
- right supramesocolic space
- left supramesocolic space
- inframesocolic space
- supramesocolic space
- inguinal canal (mnemonic)
- Hesselbach triangle
- scrotal sac
- pelvic cavity
- abdominal and pelvic viscera
- gastro-oesophageal junction
- small intestine
- large intestine
- anal canal
- biliary tree
- adrenal gland
- organs of Zuckerkandl
- renal pelvis
- renal sinus
- avascular plane of Brodel
- urinary bladder
- male reproductive system
female reproductive system
- Mullerian duct
- uterine tubes
- variant anatomy
- gastrointestinal tract
- blood supply of the abdomen and pelvis
- inferior phrenic artery
- coeliac artery
- superior mesenteric artery
- suprarenal artery (middle suprarenal artery)
- renal artery (variant anatomy)
- gonadal artery (ovarian artery | testicular artery)
- inferior mesenteric artery
- lumbar arteries
- median sacral artery
common iliac artery
- external iliac artery
internal iliac artery (mnemonic)
- anterior division
- posterior division (mnemonic)
- variant anatomy
- abdominal aorta
- portal venous system
inferior vena cava
- hepatic veins
- renal vein
- common iliac vein
- variant caval anatomy
- inferior vena cava
- innervation of the abdomen and pelvis
- lumbar plexus
- lumbosacral trunk
- sciatic nerve
- superior gluteal nerve
- inferior gluteal nerve
- nerve to piriformis
- perforating cutaneous nerve
- posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
- parasympathetic pelvic splanchnic nerves
- pudendal nerve
- nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus
- nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus
- 1. Mirzabeigi MN, Au A, Jandali S et-al. Trials and tribulations with the inferior gluteal artery perforator flap in autologous breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 2011;128 (6): 614e-24e.
- 2. Keeling AN, Naughton PA, Leahy AL et-al. Traumatic inferior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula managed with emergency transcatheter embolization. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2008;31 Suppl 2 (S2): S135-9.
- 3. Last's anatomy, regional and applied. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN:044304662X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Dalley AF, Agur AM. Clinically Oriented Anatomy, Sixth Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN:1605476528. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Gray's Anatomy. Churchill Livingstone. (2011) ISBN:0443066841. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon