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Intracranial lipoma

Last revised by Dr Mohamed Saber on 10 Oct 2021

Intracranial lipomas are not tumors as such, but rather a result of abnormal differentiation of embryologic meninx primitiva. They are frequently associated with abnormal development of adjacent structures.

Intracranial lipomas are congenital lesions and as such are found at any age when the brain is imaged for other reasons.

They are usually asymptomatic, and either found incidentally or as a result of investigation of related malformations and their presentation (e.g. epilepsy, hydrocephalus) 5,6.

A number of theories have been put forward to explain the development of intracranial lipomas. The favored theory is persistence and maldifferenitation of the meninx primitiva (subarachnoid space precursor), which accounts for the subarachnoid location, associated parenchymal anomalies, and traversing structures of intracranial lipomas 7,8.

Intracranial lipomas are widely distributed in the intracranial compartment. Although they can be found essentially anywhere, certain regions are characteristic:

The characteristic finding on both CT and MRI is a mass which has appearances consistent with fat.

On CT, they typically appear as a non-enhancing mass with uniform fat density (hence negative CT attenuation values). It has a lobulated 'soft' appearance, conforming to adjacent anatomy. Some peripheral calcification may be present.

MRI with and without fat saturation are able to make the diagnosis easily. In the absence of fat-saturated images, then chemical shift artefact may be useful. Signal characteristics are, not surprisingly, that of fat: 

  • T1: high signal intensity
  • T2: high signal intensity 
  • T1 C+ (Gd): no enhancement
  • fat saturated sequences: low signal 
  • SWI: can produce blooming due to susceptibility artifact 10

Often the lipomas are traversed by cranial nerves and adjacent vessels, best seen on high-resolution sequences. 

Intracranial lipomas are in most cases asymptomatic, and even when associated with symptomatic malformations (e.g. callosal dysgenesis) they usually require no treatment per se. In fact, attempts at resection have had relatively high morbidity with little benefit 5,6. Treatment of seizures or hydrocephalus is, of course, necessary if these are present 5,6.

The differential is essentially that of masses which contain fat, and therefore includes:

On MRI, if no fat saturated sequences are available then a number of other possibilities should be entertained, which also have high T1 signal.

  • thrombosed berry aneurysm: often will have a calcified rim and hemosiderin staining on gradient echo or SWI sequences
  • white epidermoid: rare, and will restrict on DWI

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: cerebellopontine angle lipoma
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  • Case 2: quadrigeminal cistern lipoma
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  • Case 3
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  • Case 4
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  • Case 5: suprasellar lipoma
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  • Case 6: with corpus callosum dysgenesis
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  • Case 7
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  • Case 8: tectal plate lipoma
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  • Case 9: choroid plexus lipoma
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  • Case 10
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  • Case 11: tentorium cerebelli lipoma
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  • Case 12: quadrigeminal cistern lipoma
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  • Case 13: MRS
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