Intradural extramedullary metastases

Intradural extramedullary metastases are rare and only account for approximately 5% of spinal metastases.

Please refer on leptomeningeal metastases (brain) to a general discussion focused on the brain's subarachnoid space involvement.

The age at presentation depends on tumour type. Metastases from central nervous system malignancies generally occur at a younger age.

Presentation is highly variable. As the most commonly affected site is the lumbosacral spine, symptoms and signs include back or radicular pain, weakness, paraesthesias, gait disturbance, cauda equina syndrome and symptoms/signs of meningeal irritation.

In the paediatric population, the most common intradural extramedullary neoplasms are leptomeningeal metastases resulting from primary brain tumours whereas in adults non-CNS tumours are most commonly encountered. Multiple lesions are common.

Primary tumours include:

Plain films and CT are inadequate for the assessment of possible leptomeningeal metastatic disease, and in these cases, MRI is required.

MRI

MRI without contrast may be normal, and thus when suspected contrast should be administered. Typical signal characteristics include:

  • T1: thickened nerve roots or nodular lesions that are isointense with the spinal cord may be seen
  • T2: cord oedema may be seen with more extensive disease, especially if there is an intramedullary component
  • T1 C+ (Gd)
    • enhancing tumour nodules on the spinal cord, nerve roots or cauda equina.
    • sugar coating” of the spinal cord and nerve roots

Prognosis is poor, and depends on the primary tumour. No surgical cure is possible, and treatment revolves around systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the neuraxis (again, this depends on the primary tumour). 

If diffuse (sugar coating) consider:

If nodular (mostly at cauda equina) consider:

Share article

Article information

rID: 19242
Section: Pathology
Tags: cases, spine
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Intradural extramedullary metastatic disease
  • Intradural extramedullary metastasis
  • Disseminated spinal leptomeningeal metastases

Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads

Cases and figures

  • Drag
    Case 1
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 2: sugar coated spine
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.
    Loadinganimation

    Alert accept

    Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

    Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.