Intrauterine contraceptive device

Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by:

  • thinning the endometrial lining
  • preventing sperm motility
  • preventing implantation

There are two main types of IUCDs:

The preferred abbreviation for intrauterine contraceptive device is IUCD. Occasionally IUD is employed instead, however this shortening is disliked by specialists as it is also used as an abbreviation for intrauterine death.

Radiopaque intrauterine structures, most often 'T-shaped' or at times seen as a serpiginous structure.

  • preferred modality for assessing an IUCD
  • properly-placed IUCD may be visualized as a straight hyperechoic structure in the endometrial canal of the uterus and the arms of the IUD extending laterally at the uterine fundus
  • often causes posterior acoustic shadowing
  • the distance from the top of the uterine cavity to the IUCD should be <3 mm 
  • distance >4 mm is more often associated with symptoms such as bleeding and pain, as well as with a higher risk of expulsion or displacement
  • in cases where it becomes embedded, a part of it may be visualized within the myometrium
  • if it is located too inferiorly, or if it begins to extend through the cervical os, its effectiveness is decreased and may also cause pelvic pain and/or bleeding. It should be repositioned

3D ultrasound may be useful to help visualize the IUCD location (especially with serpiginous IUCDs) 2.

Hyperattenuating structures with metallic density.

The forerunner to the intrauterine contraceptive device was first introduced by the German physician, Richard Richter of Waldenburg, in 1909 4,5. His device comprised a loop of silkworm gut placed into the endometrial cavity 5.

Ultrasound - gynaecology
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Article information

rID: 4938
Section: Gamuts
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • IUDs
  • IUCDs
  • Intra uterine device (IUD)
  • Intrauterine device (IUD)
  • Intrauterine device
  • IUCD
  • Intra uterine contraceptive device
  • Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD)
  • Intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD)
  • IUD

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Cases and figures

  •  Case 1
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  • Case 2: the 'Chinese ring' intrauterine contraceptive device
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  • Case 3: with migration
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  • Case 4: with migration
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  • Case 5: peritoneal migration
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