The estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2000-2500 pregnancies 4-5. There may be a slight female predilection 4.
The cleft can involve either the soft or hard palate and may extend as far as the nasopalatine foramen but there is no accompanying cleft lip.
There can be many assoaicted anomalies including:
- Lamotrigine exposure during pregnancy: possible 6
An isolated cleft palate only rarely identified prenatally. An "absent equals sign" has been proposed as a novel marker where a normal uvula could be visualized with a typical echo pattern (the 'equals sign') in normal cases 7.
- 1. Johnson DD, Pretorius DH, Budorick NE et-al. Fetal lip and primary palate: three-dimensional versus two-dimensional US. Radiology. 2000;217 (1): 236-9. Radiology (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Bianchi DW, Crombleholme TM, D'Alton ME. Fetology, diagnosis & management of the fetal patient. McGraw-Hill Professional. (2000) ISBN:0838525709. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Berkowitz S. Cleft lip and palate. Springer Verlag. (2006) ISBN:3540234098. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Park SS. Facial plastic surgery, the essential guide. Thieme Medical Pub. (2005) ISBN:1588903192. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Stroustrup smith A, Estroff JA, Barnewolt CE et-al. Prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip and cleft palate using MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183 (1): 229-35. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 6. Holmes LB, Baldwin EJ, Smith CR et-al. Increased frequency of isolated cleft palate in infants exposed to lamotrigine during pregnancy. Neurology. 2008;70 (22): 2152-8. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000304343.45104.d6 - Pubmed citation
- 7. Wilhelm L, Borgers H. The 'equals sign': a novel marker in the diagnosis of fetal isolated cleft palate. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;36 (4): 439-44. doi:10.1002/uog.7704 - Pubmed citation
- 8. Shaikh D, Mercer NS, Sohan K et-al. Prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip and palate. Br J Plast Surg. 2001;54 (4): 288-9. doi:10.1054/bjps.2001.3575 - Pubmed citation
- 9. Wayne C, Cook K, Sairam S et-al. Sensitivity and accuracy of routine antenatal ultrasound screening for isolated facial clefts. Br J Radiol. 2002;75 (895): 584-9. Br J Radiol (full text) - Pubmed citation