Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a syndrome combination of capillary malformations, soft-tissue or bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins or venous malformations. It is considered an angio-osteo-hypertrophic syndrome.
KTS classically comprises a triad of:
- port wine nevi
- bony or soft tissue hypertrophy of an extremity (localised gigantism)
- varicose veins or venous malformations of unusual distribution
The diagnosis of KTS is usually made when any two of the three features are present. Capillary malformations may be absent in the atypical form 14.
The name Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is essentially misleading as the current consensus uses two different names to denote two different syndromes, however, they are not always consequently addressed to as distinct entities in literature:
- Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome KTS (this article - whenever possible)
- Parkes-Weber syndrome (with true arteriovenous malformation)
Most cases of KTS are sporadic and there is no recognised gender or racial predilection. The prevalence of KTWS (as such including Weber) is ~ 1 : 100,000 11.
Patients usually present in infancy. Features are often unilateral and typically affect one limb 2. It may be diagnosed in utero 11.
Most cases are considered sporadic. However, some of the possible differential diagnoses may have familial predispositions 16.
The following levels of severity of KTS have been suggested 13:
- venous dysplasias / phlebectasic dysplasias
- arterial dysplasias
- arterial and associated venous dysplasias
phlebarterectasia (no AV shunt)
angiodysplasias with shunt (KTWS or actually F. P. Weber syndrome)
- mixed angiodysplasias
atypical form of KTS
Enlargement of the extremity consists of bone elongation, circumferential soft-tissue hypertrophy or both. This often manifests as leg-length discrepancy, although any limb may be affected.
This is the most common cutaneous manifestation of KTS. Typically, capillary malformations involve the enlarged limb, although skin changes may be seen on any part of the body. The lower limb is the affected site in ~95% of patients.
Present in a majority of patients with KTS, commonly located on the lateral aspect of the affected limb/leg 18 (and in some contradiction to common vena-saphena-magna varicosity). Persistence of embryonic veins, of which the lateral marginal vein (the vein of Servelle) has been a most typical finding (68-80% of patients) 22.
Venous malformations can occur in both the superficial and deep venous systems. Superficial venous abnormalities range from ectasia of small veins to persistent embryological veins and large venous malformations. Deep venous abnormalities include aneurysmal dilatation, aplasia, hypoplasia, duplications, and venous incompetence.
Rectal and bladder haemorrhage are serious complications of pelvic vascular malformations and have been reported in 1% of cases10. Vascular malformations can involve the
- gastrointestinal tract (20%)
- bleeding is the most common symptom and range from occult bleeding to massive, life-threatening haemorrhages and consumptive coagulopathy
- the most frequently reported sites are the distal colon and rectum
- upper gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal haemangiomas may also occur 19
- genitourinary tracts
- involved in more severe cases
- the absence of severe limb varicosities or venous malformations does not preclude the presence of pelvic involvement
- gross haematuria, which is recurrent and painless, is usually the first clinical sign of bladder involvement and frequently manifests early in life
- renal hypertrophy and venous enlargement may occur ipsilaterally to affected side 15
- vascular malformations are often located on the anterior bladder wall and dome
- the trigone and bladder neck are rarely involved
- genital lesions usually do not cause clinical problems for patients with KTS; however, some patients who report erectile dysfunction have abnormal penile veins
- splenic haemangiomas may occur 7,20
These are usually secondary to leg-length difference 13:
May show a combination of any of the above mentioned clinical features.
Prenatal ultrasound may diagnose KTWS as early as 15th week of gestation, based on limb hypertrophy and associated subcutaneous cystic lesions. 3D US may reveal leg width difference. Possible additional features include 11,16:
Differentials for intrauterine imaging findings may include 11:
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
- Proteus syndrome
- Russell-Silver syndrome
- Maffucci syndrome
- CHILD syndrome (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects)
- neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)
On conventional radiography, bone elongation contributing to leg length discrepancy, soft-tissue thickening, or calcified phleboliths may be seen.
T2-weighted MR images may show malformed venous and lymphatic lesions as areas of high signal intensity.
MR imaging depicts deep extension of low-flow vascular malformations into muscular compartments and the pelvis and their relationship to adjacent organs as well as bone or soft-tissue hypertrophy.
Typical angiographic findings, which may also be seen on contrast-enhanced CT-scan or MRI, include lower leg superficial varicoid drainage without a deep venous system. The marginal vein of Servelle is a pathognomonic finding (a subcutaneous vein found in the lateral calf and thigh) 9.
- thrombophlebitis of affected limb
- venous thromboembolism 21
- gastrointestinal or genitourinary haemorrhage if there is visceral involvement (see above)
- If capillary malformations are large enough, they may sequester platelets, possibly leading to the Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (consumptive coagulopathy)
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment in a majority of patients is conservative and includes application of graded compressive stockings or pneumatic compression devices to the enlarged extremity. Percutaneous sclerosis of localised venous malformations or superficial venous varicosities may be indicated in some patients. Surgical treatment may include epiphysiodesis to control leg length discrepancy, excision of soft tissue hypertrophy, and stripping of superficial varicose veins.
History and etymology
In 1900, the French physicians Klippel and Trénaunay first described a syndrome characterised by a capillary nevus of the affected extremity, lateral limb hypertrophy, and varicose veins. In 1918, Weber noted the association of this triad with arteriovenous fistulas 10-12.
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