Kufor-Rakeb syndrome

Last revised by Chandrajit Prasad on 12 Jan 2024

Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, also known as Parkinson disease-9 (PARK9), is a rare neurodegenerative disease, considered a form of Mendelian parkinsonism. 

This syndrome is very rare and was first described in an Arab consanguineous kindred 4. It has since been described in select families in other parts of the world.

Kufor-Rakeb syndrome has a juvenile onset, with features of Parkinson disease as well as additional features including spasticity, dementia and supranuclear gaze palsy 1,2.

Facio-faucio-finger polymyoclonus, facial dyskinesia and psychosis with visual hallucinations are other features of this syndrome.

The gene responsible has been named ATP13A2 and is located on chromosome 1p36 1,3. The disease has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance 1-3.

Initially marked atrophy is confined to the globus pallidus. Later in the disease, more global atrophy develops 1.

The parkinsonism in Kufor-Rakeb disease tends to be levodopa-responsive, other manifestations of the disease are managed symptomatically 2.

The disease is named after the Jordinian town of Kufr Rakeb where cases were first reported in 1994 4.

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