It is usually associated with profound sensorineural hearing loss, and may sometimes be associated with dizziness and/or vertigo. It is the most common cause of acquired sensorineural hearing loss in children.
The disorder is most commonly the end result of prior suppurative labyrinthitis, either related to otomastoiditis (tympanogenic etiology) or meningitis (meningogenic etiology) 1,5-7. Other causes include temporal bone surgery or trauma 1,5, autoimmune inner ear disease 9,10, and sickle cell disease 5.
The scala tympani of the basal turn of the cochlea is the most commonly affected site 11.
High-density bone deposition within the membranous labyrinth:
- mild disease: hazy increase in density within fluid spaces of the membranous labyrinth
- moderate disease: focal areas of bony encroachment on fluid spaces of the membranous labyrinth
- severe disease: membranous labyrinth completely obliterated by bone replacing fluid spaces
- loss of normal high signal of fluid within the membranous labyrinth is seen on heavily T2 weighted images (as low signal intensity foci in the labyrinth)
Treatment and prognosis
It may complicate or preclude cochlear implantation.
Possible imaging differential considerations include:
- 1. Swartz JD, Mandell DM, Faerber EN et-al. Labyrinthine ossification: etiologies and CT findings. Radiology. 1985;157 (2): 395-8. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 2. AralaşMak A, DinçEr E, Arslan G et-al. Posttraumatic labyrinthitis ossificans with perilymphatic fistulization. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2009;15 (4): 239-41. doi:10.4261/1305-3825.DIR.1621-08.1 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Philippon D, Bergeron F, Ferron P et-al. Cochlear implantation in postmeningitic deafness. Otol. Neurotol. 2010;31 (1): 83-7. Pubmed citation
- 4. Harnsberger HR, MBBS CMG, Michel MA et-al. Diagnostic Imaging Head and Neck. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN:1931884781. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Buch K, Baylosis B, Fujita A, Qureshi MM, Takumi K, Weber PC, Sakai O. Etiology-Specific Mineralization Patterns in Patients with Labyrinthitis Ossificans. (2019) AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 40 (3): 551-557. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A5985 - Pubmed
- 6. Booth TN, Roland P, Kutz JW, Lee K, Isaacson B. High-resolution 3-D T2-weighted imaging in the diagnosis of labyrinthitis ossificans: emphasis on subtle cochlear involvement. (2013) Pediatric radiology. 43 (12): 1584-90. doi:10.1007/s00247-013-2747-5 - Pubmed
- 7. Becker TS, Eisenberg LS, Luxford WM, House WF. Labyrinthine ossification secondary to childhood bacterial meningitis: implications for cochlear implant surgery. (1984) AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 5 (6): 739-41. Pubmed
- 9. Khoo JN, Tan TY. Progression of autoimmune inner ear disease to labyrinthitis ossificans: clinical and radiologic correlation. (2015) Ear, nose, & throat journal. 94 (3): 108-10. Pubmed
- 10. Labyrinthitis ossificans secondary to autoimmune inner ear disease: A previously unreported condition:. (2010) Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery. 142 (5): 772-3. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2009.10.048 - Pubmed
- 11. David M. Yousem. Head and Neck Imaging: Case Review Series E-Book. (2014) ISBN: 9780323187831
Related Radiopaedia articles
Inner ear pathology
inner ear anatomy
- enlarged vestibular aqueduct
- semicircular canal dysplasia
- classification of cochlear anomalies
- infection and inflammation
- trauma and miscellaneous