Citation, DOI & article data
The larynx is an inferior continuation of the oropharynx. It extends from the epiglottis (namely the glossoepiglottic and pharyngoepiglottic folds) to the inferior aspect of the cricoid cartilage. Inferiorly, it continues as the cervical trachea. The larynx also forms part of the upper respiratory tract.
- supraglottis: extends from the tip of the epiglottis to the laryngeal ventricle
- subglottis: extends from the inferior surface of the true vocal cords to the inferior aspect of the cricoid cartilage
- anterior: strap muscles, anterior jugular vein
- posterior: esophagus, laryngopharynx
- superior: hyoid bone, laryngopharynx
- inferior: trachea
- above the vocal cords: superior laryngeal artery (branch of the superior thyroid artery)
- below the vocal cords: inferior laryngeal artery (branch of the inferior thyroid artery)
- above the vocal cords: superior laryngeal vein accompanies its artery and drains into the superior thyroid vein (a tributary to the internal jugular vein)
- below the vocal cords: inferior laryngeal vein accompanies its artery and drains into the inferior thyroid vein (a direct tributary to the brachiocephalic vein)
- supraglottic: the supraglottic lymphatic network follows the superior laryngeal artery, piercing the thyrohyoid membrane and then draining into the superior deep cervical nodes and the pre-epiglottic nodes 6.
- subglottic: the infraglotttic lymphatic network drains to the inferior deep cervical nodes, following the inferior laryngeal artery, and/or the prelaryngeal (Delphian) nodes via the conus elasticus (aka the lateral cricothyroid ligaments) 6.
- motor: the recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx apart from the cricothyroid muscle, which is supplied by the external laryngeal nerve
- the larynx is formed from the laryngotracheal groove, which is related to the caudal aspect of the floor of the primordial pharynx
- the cartilages of the larynx develop from the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches
- 1. Harnsberger HR. Handbook of head and neck imaging. Mosby Inc. (1995) ISBN:0815142331. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Current Diagnosis and Treatment Surgery Thirteenth Edition. Gerard Doherty. McGraw-Hill Medical ISBN:0071635157 (find it at amazon.com)
- 3. Tuyns AJ, Estève J, Raymond L et-al. Cancer of the larynx/hypopharynx, tobacco and alcohol: IARC international case-control study in Turin and Varese (Italy), Zaragoza and Navarra (Spain), Geneva (Switzerland) and Calvados (France). Int. J. Cancer. 1988;41 (4): 483-91. - Pubmed citation
- 4. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: Neuroimaging, 6e. Elsevier. ISBN:070206937X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Mcminn. Last's Anatomy. ISBN: 9780729537520
- 6. Werner JA, Dünne AA, Myers JN. Functional anatomy of the lymphatic drainage system of the upper aerodigestive tract and its role in metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma. Head & neck. 25 (4): 322-32. doi:10.1002/hed.10257 - Pubmed
- 7. Chummy S. Sinnatamby. Last's Anatomy. (2018) ISBN: 9780702033940