Left heart failure
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Left heart failure or left ventricular failure is the type of heart failure attributed to left ventricular dysfunction. When the left ventricle is unable to pump blood effectively out of the heart, pulmonary edema develops. Congestion can progress to right heart failure, with manifestations such as peripheral edema.
Left heart failure is further subdivided based on left ventricular ejection fraction 1:
- heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; LVEF of 50% or more)
- heart failure with midrange (or mildly reduced) ejection fraction (HFmrEF; LVEF of 41-49%) 2
- heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; LVEF of 40% or less)