Leukemia (testicular manifestations)

Last revised by Travis Fahrenhorst-Jones on 20 Oct 2021

Leukemia testicular manifestations, or testicular leukemia, can be seen in patients during and after acute leukemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testis, and therefore the testis can act as a sanctuary for leukemic cells.

  • typically presents with painless testicular enlargement
  • most commonly appears 2-3 years following primary disease but recurrence has been reported up to 19 years post initial diagnosis 3
  • ultrasound appearance is often similar to testicular lymphoma, but it can have a very wide range of appearances:
    • testicular enlargement
    • unilateral or bilateral
    • focal or diffuse
    • hypoechoic to hyperechoic
  • given the non-specific imaging features, clinical history is mandatory for a diagnosis

See also

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