Leukoplakia of the urinary tract is a squamous metaplasia of the urothelium (keratinisation).
Clinically the condition presents with haematuria in one-third of cases, dysuria, frequency and nocturia, and thus it can mimic cystitis. Passage of the desquamated keratinised epithelial layers can also occur.
Macroscopically, white patches may be seen, hence the name.
Mucosal thickening and multiple filling defects.
Treatment and prognosis
Leukoplakia is considered a premalignant condition. There is an association with bladder neoplasia in 25% of cases.
malakoplakia of the bladder
- non-neoplastic chronic granulomatous lesions due to chronic infection by Escherichia coli in an immunocompromised patient, commonly diabetes mellitus or transplant recipients
- multifocal or long-segment strictures
- calcification is commonly seen
- reactive proliferative changes of the urothelium causing multiple small subepithelial cysts
- 1. Petrou, Steven P; David M. Pinkstaff, Kevin J. Wu, Kenneth J. Bregg (November 2003). "Leukoplakia of the Bladder". Cliggott Publishing