Leukoplakia of the urinary tract

Last revised by Vitalii Rogalskyi on 26 Jul 2021

Leukoplakia of the urinary tract is a squamous metaplasia of the urothelium (keratinization). 

Clinically the condition presents with hematuria in one-third of cases, dysuria, frequency and nocturia, and thus it can mimic cystitis. Passage of the desquamated keratinized epithelial layers can also occur.

The condition is associated with infection in the majority of cases (80%) and calculi in 40%. In decreasing order of frequency, it can occur in the bladder, the renal pelvis and the ureter.

Macroscopically, white patches may be seen, hence the name.

Mucosal thickening and multiple filling defects.

Leukoplakia is considered a premalignant condition. There is an association with bladder neoplasia in 25% of cases.

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