Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis).


  • type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation
    • no angular deviation
  • type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation
    • significant angular deviation
    • disruption of posterior longitudinal ligament
  • type IIa: the fracture line is horizontal/oblique (instead of vertical)
    • significant angular deviation without anterior translation
  • type III: type I with bilateral facet joint dislocation
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rID: 35440
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