Long COVID-19

Last revised by Francesco Sciacca on 11 Dec 2021

Long COVID-19, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or post COVID-19 condition, is a post-viral syndrome affecting people who have recovered from COVID-19 infection. Symptoms are similar to those experienced by patients with chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) rather than myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) 6.

Clinical presentation

It can manifest weeks or months after the apparent clinical resolution of the acute phase of the disease. Dyspnea and fatigue are among the most common symptoms 1,2. However, the signs, symptoms and possible clinical manifestations are grouped into two classes 3,4:

  • general syndrome, e. g. fatigue, fever
  • organ-specific clinical manifestations
    • neurological, e. g. headache and sleep disturbances
    • cardiovascular, e. g. tachycardia and chest pain 


According to some authors, anti-idiotype antibodies play a possible role in the pathogenesis of the disease 5.

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