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A loopogram is a fluoroscopic study of an ileal conduit. An ileal conduit is a type of urinary diversion. A loopogram is used to show the structure of the ileal conduit, ureters, renal pelvis, and renal calyces 2.
Some authors defined loopogram as water-soluble contrast stomal enema that accesses stoma patency before the reversal of loop colostomy or ileostomy 3,4,5.
This procedure is also known is an ileal conduitogram, ileal loopography or ileostoureterography.
It is a retrograde study in which contrast is injected via the anterior abdominal wall stoma of the ileal conduit. A low osmolar contrast agent with a concentration of 150 mg/mL can be used 2.
The stoma is initially catheterized with a 14-18 French urinary catheter to allow access. A balloon is inflated to prevent the catheter from accidentally being pulled out during the procedure. A control AP film of the abdomen is then taken 2.
Contrast is then injected through the stoma until the pelvicalyceal system is adequately distended 2.
A series of images are taken in a number of positions to assess the conduit, such as an AP view of the kidneys and collecting system, oblique views of both kidneys, and an oblique view at the site of the ureteric-loop anastomosis 2. In the majority of cases a post-operative stricture is the chief clinical concern.
Distal loopogram is generally considered a safe procedure and complications are rare. Two cases of delayed perforation were reported after the procedure 3.