Last revised by Mostafa Elfeky on 22 Dec 2023

Maduromycosis, also known as maduramycosis or eumycetoma, is caused by various fungi (e.g. Madurella mycetomatis) or actinomycetes (e.g. Nocardia brasiliensis) which usually affect the feet.

Initially, a nodule, or abscess over months to years progresses to chronic infection with the formation of granulomatous nodules drained by sinuses connecting with the skin. Superimposed bacterial infection may result in larger open ulcers.

These changes eventually lead to deformity. The changes on imaging are remarkable with the bones being destroyed and remodeled.

Some publications have stated a "dot in a circle sign" as a characteristic MRI feature for this condition 3,4 (this feature has also been described on ultrasound ref).

The disease was first described in Madurai, India (in the southernmost state of Tamil Nadu) in 1842.

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