Manubriosternal and sternoxiphoidal joint fusion can be partial or complete, and may be a normal anatomic variant.
Complete fusion can be seen at a young age. Pathological fusion can be seen in old age secondary to fusion caused by bridging osteophytes 2. It may also be seen in inflammatory arthritis (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis). It is best seen in sagittal and oblique coronal planes 1.
- 1. Chary Duraikannu, Olma V Noronha, Pushparajan Sundarrajan. MDCT evaluation of sternal variations: Pictorial essay. (2016) Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging. 26 (2): 185. doi:10.4103/0971-3026.184407 - Pubmed
- 2. Sebes JI, Salazar JE. The manubriosternal joint in rheumatoid disease. (1983) AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 140 (1): 117-21. doi:10.2214/ajr.140.1.117 - Pubmed