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Markowitz and Manson classification system of naso-orbitoethmoid fractures

Last revised by Francis Deng on 27 Jun 2021

The Markowitz and Manson classification system categorizes fractures of the naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) complex as follows 1:

  • type I - in which the medial canthal tendon is intact and connected to a single large fracture fragment
  • type II - the fracture is comminuted, and the medial canthal tendon is attached to a single bone fragment
  • type III - comminution extends to the medial canthal tendon insertion site on the anterior medial orbital wall at the level of the lacrimal fossa, with resultant avulsion of the tendon

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