Markowitz and Manson classification system of naso-orbitoethmoid fractures

Dr Craig Hacking et al.

The Markowitz and Manson classification system categorises fractures of the naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) complex as follows 1:

  • type I - in which the medial canthal tendon is intact and connected to a single large fracture fragment
  • type II - the fracture is comminuted, and the medial canthal tendon is attached to a single bone fragment
  • type III - comminution extends to the medial canthal tendon insertion site on the anterior medial orbital wall at the level of the lacrimal fossa, with resultant avulsion of the tendon
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Article information

rID: 42077
System: Head & Neck
Tag: cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • naso-orbitoethmoid fractures: Markowitz and manson classification system

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