Most commonly affects patients over 45 and has a strong male predilection (M:F = 5:1). Maxillary antral carcinomas are more common in Africa and Asia than in Europe or North America 2.
When do symptoms occur, they include:
- unilateral stiffness and obstruction
- blood-tinged nasal discharge
- pain resembling toothache
- enlargement and ulceration of the palate
The underlying histology of maxillary antral carcinomas is variable 2:
- squamous cell carcinoma (80%)
- adenoid cystic carcinoma (10%)
- verrucous carcinoma
- malignant melanoma
The exact cause of maxillary antral carcinomas remains unknown, but exposure to wood dust, as well as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, have been implicated in its pathogenesis 2.
It appears as irregular radiopacity within the sinus, eroding the sinus wall.
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment consists of surgery followed by radiation therapy. Prognosis is extremely poor, with a 5-year survival of ~10% 1.
- 1. Rajendran A, Sundaram S. Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology. Elsevier India. ISBN:B00JXW0R9A. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Warnakulasuriya S, Tilakaratna W. Oral Medicine and Pathology: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub. ISBN:935025221X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon