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At the time the article was created Maxime St-Amant had no recorded disclosures.View Maxime St-Amant's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Craig Hacking had the following disclosures:
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The maxillary sinus (or antrum of Highmore) is a paired pyramid-shaped paranasal sinus within the maxillary bone which drains via the maxillary ostium into the infundibulum, then through hiatus semilunaris into the middle meatus. It is the largest of the paranasal sinuses.
location: paired sinuses within the body of the maxilla
Described as a pyramid, the maxillary sinuses have a base on the lateral border of the nose, with the apex pointing towards the zygomatic process of the maxilla. The floor is formed by the alveolar process of the maxilla. The roof is the orbital floor. The posterior wall forms the anterior border of the pterygopalatine fossa.
There are several recesses of the maxillary sinus 5:
infraorbital recess (superiorly)
zygomatic recess (laterally)
alveolar recess (inferiorly)
palatine recess (variable extension of alveolar recess)
Like the other paranasal air sinuses, these can vary in size. Large maxillary sinuses can extend to the alveolar process of the maxilla to the point where the roots of the molar teeth can project into the space.
Unlike the other paranasal air sinuses, the opening of the sinus is found on its superior end. This ostium communicates with the nasal cavity via the posterior end of the hiatus semilunaris.
Small arteries from the facial, maxillary, infraorbital and greater palatine arteries pierce the bony walls of the maxillary sinus.
Lymph from the maxillary sinus drains to the submandibular group of lymph nodes via the infraorbital foramen or the aforementioned communication with the nasal cavity.
superior alveolar nerves
minute branches from this nerve supply the medial wall of the sinus
perforating branches supply the roof of the sinus
Common anatomic variations of maxillary sinuses are 6:
pneumatization into the roots of teeth (83.2%)
antral septations (44.4%)
total maxillary sinus agenesis - rare
It is present at birth and it develops until around the age of 14 years.
History and etymology
The antrum Highmorianum was first described by Nathaniel Highmore (1613-1685), a British physician and anatomist 3.
- 1. S. Jacob. Atlas of Human Anatomy. (2001) - Google Books
- 2. Mcminn. Last's Anatomy. (2003) ISBN: 9780729537520 - Google Books
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- 4. Loureiro R, Naves E, Zanello R, Sumi D, Gomes R, Daniel M. Dental Emergencies: A Practical Guide. Radiographics. 2019;39(6):1782-95. doi:10.1148/rg.2019190019 - Pubmed
- 5. Whyte A & Boeddinghaus R. The Maxillary Sinus: Physiology, Development and Imaging Anatomy. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2019;48(8):20190205. doi:10.1259/dmfr.20190205 - Pubmed
- 6. Pelinsari Lana J, Moura Rodrigues Carneiro P, de Carvalho Machado V, Eduardo Alencar de Souza P, Ricardo Manzi F, Campolina Rebello Horta M. Anatomic Variations and Lesions of the Maxillary Sinus Detected in Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Dental Implants. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2011;23(12):1398-403. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2011.02321.x - Pubmed