Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures

Last revised by Bahman Rasuli on 25 Jun 2023

The Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures divides scaphoid fractures into three types according to the anatomic location of the fracture line:

  • middle (70%)

  • distal (20%)

  • proximal (10%)

Fractures of the distal third are further divided into distal articular surface and distal tubercle fractures:

  • distal tubercle third fracture

  • distal articular surface fracture

  • distal third fracture

  • middle third fracture

  • proximal third fracture

The location of the fracture has important implications on the risk of osteonecrosis and, therefore, management.

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: Mayo classification
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  • Figure 2: scaphoid (illustration)
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  • Case 1: middle
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  • Case 2: proximal pole
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