Medial collateral ligament of the knee
Citation, DOI and article data
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee is a flat, triangular band on its medial aspect that resists valgus forces. It forms part of the medial capsuloligamentous complex of the knee.
The MCL measures 8-10 cm in length and has superficial and deep portions 4.
The superficial MCL, also known as a tibial collateral ligament or vertical component of the MCL, is part of the middle layer of the medial capsuloligamentous complex of the knee. Its proximal attachment is the posterosuperior aspect of the medial femoral epicondyle, anteroinferior to the adductor tubercle. Distally it has two insertion sites at the upper medial surface of the tibia 1-5:
- anterior band of the semimembranosus tendon (principally a soft tissue attachment)
- tibial periosteum posterior to the pes anserine attachment
The deep MCL, also known as the mid-third capsular ligament, is part of the deep layer of the medial capsuloligamentous complex of the knee, and is a thickening of the medial joint capsule, and is divided into meniscofemoral and meniscotibial ligaments 4,5.
- branches of the superior and inferior genicular arteries 5
- medial articular nerve, a branch of the saphenous nerve 5
- 1. Chummy S. Sinnatamby. Last's Anatomy. (2011) ISBN: 9780702033940
- 2. Susan Standring. Gray's Anatomy. (2015) ISBN: 9780702052309
- 3. Keith L. Moore, Arthur F. Dalley, A. M. R. Agur. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. (2013) ISBN: 9781451119459
- 4. Andrews K, Lu A, Mckean L, Ebraheim N. Review: Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries. Journal of Orthopaedics. 2017;14(4):550-554. doi:10.1016/j.jor.2017.07.017
- 5. Hassebrock J, Gulbrandsen M, Asprey W, Makovicka J, Chhabra A. Knee Ligament Anatomy and Biomechanics. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2020;28(3):80-86. doi:10.1097/jsa.0000000000000279