Medial temporal lobe atrophy score
Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Frank Gaillard had no recorded disclosures.View Frank Gaillard's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Aleksander Petrovic had no recorded disclosures.View Aleksander Petrovic's current disclosures
The medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score, also known as Scheltens' scale, is useful in distinguishing patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease from those without impairment 2 is helpful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia (see neurodegenerative MRI brain - an approach).
Although the MTA score has been widely used, it does not capture entorhinal cortex atrophy, which has been shown to occur early in the development of Alzheimer disease. An additional scoring system entorhinal cortical atrophy (ERICA) has been developed which is reported as having better diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing healthy controls from those with Alzheimer disease 7.
It is a visual score performed on MRI of the brain using coronal T1 weighted images in a plane parallel to the brainstem axis and through the hippocampus at the level of the anterior pons 5. The score is also validated for assessment on CT brain 6. Both sides are evaluated and the higher or the average score have been both used for for further grading by various authors 6,9.
It is based on three features 1,3:
- width of the choroid fissure
- width of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle
- height of the hippocampus
These result in a score of 0 to 4:
- 0: no CSF is visible around the hippocampus
- 1: choroid fissure is slightly widened
- 2: moderate widening of the choroid fissure, mild enlargement of the temporal horn and mild loss of hippocampal height
- 3: marked widening of the choroid fissure, moderate enlargement of the temporal horn, and moderate loss of hippocampal height
- 4: marked widening of the choroid fissure, marked enlargement of the temporal horn, and the hippocampus is markedly atrophied and internal structure is lost
The score is interpreted in relation to age:
- <75 years: ≥2 is abnormal
- ≥75 years: ≥3 is abnormal
A more detailed cut-off for an abnormal average score was recently proposed 6:
- <65 years: ≥1 is abnormal
- 65-74 years: ≥1.5 is abnormal
- 75-84 years: ≥2 is abnormal
- >85 years: ≥2 is abnormal
It has been also noted that the exact cut-off has limited value above the age of 85 due to the substantial decrease in sensitivity 6. Additionally, both gender and age were found to be confounders of the score 9.
Atrophy has been shown to correlate with likelihood of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia 4.
- 1. Wahlund LO, Julin P, Johansson SE et-al. Visual rating and volumetry of the medial temporal lobe on magnetic resonance imaging in dementia: a comparative study. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 2000;69 (5): 630-5. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Duara R, Loewenstein DA, Potter E et-al. Medial temporal lobe atrophy on MRI scans and the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2008;71 (24): 1986-92. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000336925.79704.9f - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Scheltens P, Launer L, Barkhof F et-al. Visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging: Interobserver reliability. J Neurol. 1995;242 (9): 557-560. doi:10.1007/BF00868807
- 4. Sarazin M, de Souza LC, Lehéricy S et-al. Clinical and research diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am. 2012;22 (1): 23-32,viii. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2011.11.004 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Scheltens P, Leys D, Barkhof F, Huglo D, Weinstein HC, Vermersch P, Kuiper M, Steinling M, Wolters EC, Valk J. Atrophy of medial temporal lobes on MRI in "probable" Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing: diagnostic value and neuropsychological correlates. (1992) Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. 55 (10): 967-72. doi:10.1136/jnnp.55.10.967 - Pubmed
- 6. Jules J. Claus, Salka S. Staekenborg, Dana C. Holl, Jelmen J. Roorda, Jacqueline Schuur, Pieter Koster, Caroline E. M. Tielkes, Philip Scheltens. Practical use of visual medial temporal lobe atrophy cut-off scores in Alzheimer’s disease: Validation in a large memory clinic population. (2017) European Radiology. 27 (8): 3147. doi:10.1007/s00330-016-4726-3 - Pubmed
- 7. Simon Jonas Enkirch, Andreas Traschütz, Andreas Müller, Catherine N. Widmann, Gerrit H. Gielen, Michael T. Heneka, Alina Jurcoane, Hans H. Schild, Elke Hattingen. The ERICA Score: An MR Imaging–based Visual Scoring System for the Assessment of Entorhinal Cortex Atrophy in Alzheimer Disease. (2018) Radiology. doi:10.1148/radiol.2018171888
- 8. B. Thomas, R. Sheelakumari, S. Kannath, S. Sarma, R.N. Menon. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in the Posterior Cingulate and Precuneus and the Entorhinal Cortical Atrophy Score Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Due to Alzheimer Disease. (2019) American Journal of Neuroradiology. 40 (10): 1658. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A6219 - Pubmed
- 9. Velickaite V, Ferreira D, Cavallin L et al. Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy Ratings in a Large 75-Year-Old Population-Based Cohort: Gender-Corrected and Education-Corrected Normative Data. Eur Radiol. 2018;28(4):1739-47. doi:10.1007/s00330-017-5103-6 - Pubmed