Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures

Last revised by Yaïr Glick on 1 Apr 2024

Meyers and McKeever classification of ACL avulsion fractures is the most frequently employed system to describe ACL avulsion fractures.

Classification

Under the Meyers and McKeever system (with modifications by Zaricznyj) injuries are classified into four main types:

  • type 1: minimally/nondisplaced fragment

  • type 2: anterior elevation of the fragment

  • type 3: complete separation of the fragment

    • type 3a: involves small portion of eminence

    • type 3b: involves the majority of the eminence

  • type 4: comminuted avulsion or rotation of the fracture fragment

History and etymology

The classification was initially proposed by Meyers and McKeever in 1959 and later modified by Zaricznyj in 1977 1.

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