Movements of the forearm
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The elbow joint is a modified hinge joint resulting in a wide range of forearm movements.
Forearm flexion is rotation in the anatomic plane such that the radius and ulna move anteriorly. It occurs primarily at the articulation between the humerus and ulna and can achieve approximately 150° of movement in most individuals. It is the opposite of forearm extension.
Forearm extension is the opposite of forearm flexion and represents reduction of the angle between the radius and humerus back to the anatomic position (defined as 0°) in the elbow joint. Gravity also assists in extending the elbow when the person is upright.
Forearm supination is the rotation of the radius so the palm faces anteriorly (into anatomical position). It occurs primarily at the proximal radioulnar joint by rotation of the radial head against the radial notch of the proximal ulna, held in place by the annular ligament. It is the opposite of forearm pronation.
supinator (when slow and unrestricted)
biceps brachii (when fast and restricted)
Forearm pronation is the rotation of the radius so the palm faces posteriorly (away from the anatomical position). It occurs primarily at the proximal radioulnar joint. Gravity also assists in pronating the elbow. It is the opposite of forearm supination.
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