Movements of the forearm
Citation, DOI & article data
The elbow joint is a modified hinge joint resulting in a wide range of movements of the forearm.
Forearm flexion is rotation in the anatomic plane such that the radius and ulna move anteriorly. It occurs primarily in the articulation between the humerus and ulna and can achieve approximately 150° of movement. It is the opposite of forearm extension.
Forearm extension is opposite of forearm flexion, that is the straightening of the radius and elbow back to the anatomic position (to 0°). Gravity also assists extending the elbow. It is the opposite of forearm flexion.
Forearm supination is rotation of the radius so the palm faces posteriorly (back to the anatomical position). It occurs primarily at the proximal radioulnar joint by rotation of the radial head against the radial notch of the proximal ulna, held in by the annular ligament. It is the opposite of forearm pronation.
- supinator (when slow and unrestricted)
- biceps brachii (when fast and restricted)
Forearm pronation is rotation of the radius so the palm faces anteriorly (away from the anatomical position). It occurs primarily at the proximal radioulnar joint. Gravity also assists pronating the elbow. It is the opposite of forearm supination.
- 1. Last's anatomy, regional and applied. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN:044304662X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Susan Standring. Gray's Anatomy. ISBN: 9780702052309
- 3. Moore KL, Agur AMR, Dalley AF. Clinically oriented anatomy. LWW. ISBN:1451119453. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon