MRI scanners, although free from potentially cancer-inducing ionising radiation found in plain radiography and CT, have a host of safety issues which must be taken very seriously. MRI safety can be divided into:
- main magnetic field
- varying magnetic (gradient) fields
Main magnetic field
The main magnetic field (B0) of a 1.5 T magnet is about 30,000 times the strength of the earth's magnetic field. It is strong enough to pull heavy-duty floor buffers and mop buckets into the bore of the magnet, move trolleys across the room and turn oxygen bottles into hazardous projectiles. Deaths have occurred from trauma as a result of these effects. Smaller objects such as coins, hairpins and pens have been yanked off the person carrying them.
The strong field can affect cardiac pacemakers. Older pacemakers had a magnetic reed switch which could be disturbed by a strong magnetic field resulting in possible deleterious effects to the patient with one implanted. In addition their components often had a significant ferromagnetic content. Therefore in the past, having a pacemaker was an absolute contraindication to undergoing an MRI.
Modern pacemakers often have solid-state switches which are much less likely to be affected and much reduced ferromagnetic material. Due to this technical innovation, radiological societies in both North America and Europe have issued revised guidelines stating that having an implanted cardiac device is now only a relative contraindication 1.
Many older intracranial aneurysm clips are ferromagnetic and as a result experience a torque (twisting) in a magnetic field. Not everyone with an aneurysm clip experiences a fatal haemorrhage when placed in a magnet, but several cases have been reported.
Some types of heart valves (e.g. Starr-Edwards) are torqued in a magnetic field: however, this torque is less than the stresses that occur normally as a result of blood flow. Therefore heart valves are usually only a relative contraindication for MRI.
More of an annoyance than a safety problem is the ability of the magnetic field of a MRI machine to erase the information contained on the magnetic strip on ATM and credit cards. This may occur a short distance inside of the scanner room of a MRI machine. In addition mechanical watches will "freeze up" in a strong field, sometimes permanently.
Some metallic objects that are usually safe near an MRI machine are gold jewellery, shirt cuff-links and eyeglass frames.
Varying magnetic (gradient) fields
Varying magnetic fields are necessary in order to obtain images from MRI scanners. Changing magnetic field induce electrical currents in conductors (this is how an electrical generator works). In patients with metal in their body, the potential exists for electrical currents being induced in the metal with subsequent heating. This may occur with metal foreign bodies or some surgical implants. It does not universally occur and some patients with hip prostheses, for example, may be scanned without harm.
Very rapidly changing magnetic fields as may be achieved with echo planar imaging can cause nerve stimulation. This stimulation can affect motor nerves with resulting muscle contraction as well as the retina with resulting flickering lights called magnetophosphenes. This is particularly an issue with ultra high field magnets (i.e. ≥7 T).
The radiofrequency (RF) power that is capable of being produced matches that of many small radio stations (15-20 kW). As a result there is the presence of heating effects from the RF. In most pulse sequences, the heating is insignificant and does not exceed FDA guidelines. However echo planar imaging (EPI) and some spectroscopy localisation techniques are capable of exceeding FDA guidelines. Monitoring of the power deposition in patients is a requirement for FDA approval of clinical MRI scanners.
Potential for electrical shock exists with RF coils so proper grounding and insulation of coils is necessary. Any damage to coils or their cables needs prompt attention. Also looping of the cable to a coil can result in burns to patients that come into contact with them. It is best to avoid all contact with the RF coil cables.
- 1. Kmietowicz. Z. (2018) Call to end the scandal of denying MRI scans to patients with cardiac devices. BMJ 362:k3623.
- 2. Tsai LL, Grant AK, Mortele KJ, Kung JW, Smith MP. A Practical Guide to MR Imaging Safety: What Radiologists Need to Know. (2015) Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 35 (6): 1722-37. doi:10.1148/rg.2015150108 - Pubmed
- 3. Sammet S. Magnetic resonance safety. (2016) Abdominal radiology (New York). 41 (3): 444-51. doi:10.1007/s00261-016-0680-4 - Pubmed
Physics and Imaging Technology: MRI
- MRI (introduction)
- echo time
- flip angle
- repetition time
- magnetic susceptibility
- electromagnetic induction
- eddy currents
- magnetic field gradient
- dependence of magnetisation (proton density, field strength and temperature)
- Larmor frequency
- magnetic dipole
- net magnetisation vector
- resonance and radiofrequency (RF)
- chemical shift
- Ernst angle
- molecular tumbling rate effects on T1 and T2
- units of electromagnetism
- MRI hardware
- signal processing
MRI pulse sequences (basics | abbreviations | parameters)
- spin echo sequences
- inversion recovery sequences
- gradient echo sequences
- fat-suppressed imaging sequences
- diffusion weighted sequences (DWI)
- derived values
- CSF flow studies
- susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)
- saturation recovery sequences
- echo-planar pulse sequences
- metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS)
- T1 rho
- spiral pulse sequences
- MR angiography (and venography)
MR spectroscopy (MRS)
- Hunter's angle
- lactate peak: resonates at 1.3 ppm
- lipids peak: resonate at 1.3 ppm
- alanine peak: resonates at 1.48 ppm
- N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak: resonates at 2.0 ppm
- glutamine-glutamate peak: resonate at 2.2-2.4 ppm
- gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) peak: resonates at 2.2-2.4 ppm
- 2-hydroxyglutarate peak: resonates at 2.25 ppm
- citrate peak: resonates at 2.6 ppm
- creatine peak: resonates at 3.0 ppm
- choline peak: resonates at 3.2 ppm
- myoinositol peak: resonates at 3.5 ppm
- functional MRI (fMRI)
- MR fingerprinting
- MRI hardware and room shielding
- MRI software
- patient and physiologic motion
- tissue heterogeneity and foreign bodies
- Fourier transform and Nyqvist sampling theorem
MRI contrast agents
- gadolinium ion
- extracellular MRI contrast agents
- hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents
- intravascular (blood pool) MRI contrast agents
- gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents
- tumour-specific MRI contrast agents
- reticuloendothelial MRI contrast agents
- contrast agent safety
- MRI safety
Factors affecting T1