Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Last revised by Joshua Yap on 21 Oct 2022

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, pancreas, and parathyroid glands

There are other multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes and these are discussed separately. 

In addition to the characteristic lesions involving the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreas, numerous other lesions are encountered with greater frequency in patients with MEN1. These include: 

Primary hyperparathyroidism is the commonest presentation, followed by pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with associated hypersecretion syndromes; gastrinomas are most common and associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome 7

MEN1 is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by 1-7:

Handy mnemonics for recalling MEN1: 

The abnormality is related to MEN1, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 11q13 which produces menin, a nuclear protein important for the regulation of gene expression. 

Treatment is directed to each individual manifestation. These are therefore discussed separately.

Pancreatic malignancy is the leading cause of mortality in MEN1. 

Harvey Cushing was the first to publish a case of MEN1 with the classical triad in 1927. MEN1 was first characterized as a discrete pathological entity by an American-Austrian physician Paul Wermer et al., whilst working at Presbyterian Hospital, as part of a Columbia University team in New York, USA in 1954 3,8. The MEN1 gene was discovered in 1997 8.

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