There are a number of neoplasms that can involve the vermiform appendix, some of which are peculiar to this site.
Tumours involving the appendix have been found in only about 1% of all appendectomy specimens 9. Epithelial neoplasms and neuroendocrine tumours represent the vast majority of the tumours affecting the appendix.
Symptoms may vary from patients being completely asymptomatic, such as in small benign neuroendocrine tumours, to a clinical picture of acute appendicitis, which is reported in ~40% of cases and is most commonly seen associated with neuroendocrine tumours 9.
Mucinous neoplasms can lead to abdominal pain, gastrointestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension when the complication pseudomyxoma peritonei has developed.
Carcinoid syndrome related to malignant neuroendocrine tumours is rare, present in less than 5% of patients with this tumour.
- 1- Pickhardt PJ, Levy AD, Rohrmann CA et-al. Primary neoplasms of the appendix manifesting as acute appendicitis: CT findings with pathologic comparison. Radiology. 2002;224 (3): 775-81. Radiology (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 2- Pickhardt PJ, Levy AD, Rohrmann CA et-al. Primary neoplasms of the appendix: radiologic spectrum of disease with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 23 (3): 645-62. Radiographics (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 3- Deans GT, Spence RA. Neoplastic lesions of the appendix. Br J Surg. 1995;82 (3): 299-306. - Pubmed citation
- 4- Bucher P, Mathe Z, Demirag A et-al. Appendix tumors in the era of laparoscopic appendectomy. Surg Endosc. 2004;18 (7): 1063-6. doi:10.1007/s00464-003-9255-x - Pubmed citation
- 5- Connor SJ, Hanna GB, Frizelle FA. Appendiceal tumors: retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of appendiceal tumors from 7,970 appendectomies. Dis. Colon Rectum. 1998;41 (1): 75-80. - Pubmed citation
- 6- Francica G, Lapiccirella G, Giardiello C et-al. Giant mucocele of the appendix: clinical and imaging findings in 3 cases. J Ultrasound Med. 2006;25 (5): 643-8. J Ultrasound Med (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 7- Chiou YY, Pitman MB, Hahn PF et-al. Rare benign and malignant appendiceal lesions: spectrum of computed tomography findings with pathologic correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27 (3): 297-306. J Comput Assist Tomogr (link) - Pubmed citation
- 8- Rao PM, Mueller PR. Clinical and pathologic variants of appendiceal disease: CT features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170 (5): 1335-40. AJR Am J Roentgenol (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 9. Leonards LM, Pahwa A, Patel MK, Petersen J, Nguyen MJ, Jude CM. Neoplasms of the Appendix: Pictorial Review with Clinical and Pathologic Correlation. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 37 (4): 1059-1083. doi:10.1148/rg.2017160150 - Pubmed
The appendix can be affected by numerous inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic conditions:
- appendiceal mucocele
- appendiceal intussusception
neoplasms of the appendix
- appendiceal epithelial neoplasms
- appendiceal neuroendocrine tumours
- appendiceal lymphoma