Neurones are cells of the central nervous system, located within the grey matter, and responsible for all neurological functions of the brain.
Neurones vary in morphology and size substantially, but all share a number of features 1:
- a cell body
- perikaryon: cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus
- a single process of variable length (even over a meter)
- generally the 'output' of the neurone
- terminated in terminal buttons which release neurotransmitters
- usually multiple branching processes
- generally the 'input' of the neurone
Generally, input from other neurones or sensory receptors received by dendrites may lead to an action potential within the cell body which then propagates down the axon, eventually resulting in the release of neurotransmitters from the terminal buttons. This, in turn, can affect other neurones or end organs 1.
A number of markers are useful to identify neurones, typically marking the body and dendrites 3:
- synaptophysin: a presynaptic vesicle protein
- NeuN: a neuronal nuclear protein
- microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2)
- neurofilament subunits
Types of neurones
Three main morphological patterns of neurones are described, depending on the relationship of the cell body to the axon and dendrites 1.
Additional variation in morphology and size results in a variety of specific neurone types, depending on the location within the nervous system. For example within the cerebral cortex 5 types of neurones are present 1:
- pyramidal cells
- fusiform cells
- cells of Martinotti
- horizontal cells of Cajal
- stellate cells
Pyramidal cells are by far the most common neurone type found in human neocortex, and are located in layers II, III, V and VI (see below). They are, as their name suggests, pyramidal in shape with the apex pointing outwards, towards the pial surface of the brain. From the apex, a thick single dendrite extends towards more superficial layers and branches into numerous dendrites. From the base of the cell body, an axon extends into deeper layers and/or into the subcortical white matter. Additional dendrites extend from the base of the cell body to connect with other neurones in the same layer 1.
The largest examples of pyramidal cells are the Betz cells found in the motor cortex 1.
Fusiform cells extend orthogonally to their cell layer with dendrites extending from either end into deeper and more superficial layers. From the cell body, an axon arises which passes superficially 1.
Cells of Martinotti
Cells of Martinotti are small cells with a limited number of short dendrites and an axon which extends superficially 1.
Horizontal cells of Cajal
Horizontal cells of Cajal are only found in layer I and are the least common cell type. They are also fusiform in shape but are aligned parallel to their cell layer with their axon extending laterally within the layer to synapse with nearby pyramidal cells 1.
Stellate cells, also known as granule cells, are rounded with short dendrites radiating circumferentially out from the body. They are predominantly found in layers II, IV and VI 1.
Etymology and spelling
You may have, as many have before you 2, been confused about the spelling of neurone vs. neuron. Generally, the UK spelling is with a terminal 'e' (neurone) rather than the US spelling without the 'e' (neuron).
- 1. Barbara Young, Phillip Woodford, Geraldine O'Dowd. Wheater's Functional Histology. 6th EditionISBN: 9780702054884
- 2. Bayliss WM. "NEURONE" OR "NEURON.". British medical journal. 1 (2895): 888. Pubmed
- 3. Seth Love, Arie Perry, James Ironside, Herbert Budka. Greenfield's Neuropathology, Ninth Edition - Two Volume Set. ISBN: 9781498721288
- alcian blue stain
- azan stain
- Giemsa stain
- Gram stain
- hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E)
- immunoperoxidase staining
- Luxol fast blue stain
- Masson's trichrome stain
- methylene blue
- Nissl stain
- oil red O stain
- osmium stain
- Papanicolaou stain
- periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS)
- Prussian blue stain
- reticulin stain
- silver stain
- Sudan stains
- toluidine blue stain
- van Gieson stain
- Ziehl-Neelsen stain
- specific features and structures
- blood brain barrier
- glymphatic pathway