Citation, DOI & article data
A nutmeg liver appearance is due to a perfusion abnormality of the liver usually as result of hepatic venous congestion. When hepatic veins are congested, contrast is prevented from diffusing through the liver in a normal manner. This results in a mottled pattern of contrast enhancement in the arterial and early portal venous phases with decreased enhancement of the liver periphery. The areas of decreased enhancement represent decreased portal flow, hepatic congestion and ischemia. On delayed images parenchymal enhancement becomes more uniform.
Conditions associated with hepatic venous congestion include:
- 1. Reuther WL, Newman CA, Smith RE et-al. Gastrointestinal case of the day. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the IVC with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Radiographics. 19 (1): 248-51. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Dähnert W. Radiology review manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2003) ISBN:0781738954. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Hilscher M & Sanchez W. Congestive Hepatopathy. Clinical Liver Disease. 2016;8(3):68-71. doi:10.1002/cld.573 - Pubmed