Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus results in epiphora and can be primary or secondary, congenital or acquired. Obstruction can occur in canaliculi, lacrimal sac, or nasolacrimal duct (post saccular) levels.
Acquired obstruction can be primary (PANDO) or secondary due to a wide range of detectable causes such as trauma and facial fractures, surgery, inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis, primary or secondary neoplasms, enlarged ethmoid mucoceles. Secondary acquired obstruction of the canaliculi includes infections, skin burns, drugs for glaucoma, or chemotherapeutic agents such as fluorouracil.
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