It is most frequently presents in young and middle age groups (20-50 years). The overall incidence is around 8-43 per 10,000 autopsy series 4.
The clinical presentation would often depend on the size of tumour:
- small tumours (<5 cm): usually no symptoms
- large tumours: may cause dysphagia, regurgitation, oesophageal obstruction, chest pain, cough, or bleeding (rare)
Like other leiomyomas, they comprise of smooth muscle overgrowth.
They typically involve the mid-to-distal oesophagus 4.
On barium swallow, may be seen as a discrete ovoid mass that is well outlined by barium. Its borders form slightly obtuse angles with the oesophageal wall.
- ovoid intramural solitary mass with a smooth surface
- the presence of calcifications is almost pathognomonic
- narrowing of the oesophageal lumen
- may displace the oesophagus
- moderate diffuse contrast-enhancement
- no signs of invasion of adjacent tissue
Treatment and prognosis
The overall prognosis of these benign tumours is excellent. If the tumour is small (<5 cm) and asymptomatic treatment is not necessary. Otherwise, surgical enucleation is recommended 1,5.
Imaging differential considerations include:
- oesophageal GIST
- oesophageal carcinoma
- oesophageal leiomyosarcoma
- oesophageal hamartoma
- other mediastinal tumours arising close to the oesophagus
- foreign body
- oesophageal dysmotility
- oesophageal tumours
- benign oesophageal neoplasms
- malignant oesophageal neoplasms
- gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
- oesophageal stricture
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