Okuda staging system
The Okuda staging system was an advance on earlier hepatocellular (HCC) staging classifications, in that it incorporated both cancer-related variables and liver function related variables to determine prognosis 1:
- disease involving >50% of hepatic parenchyma
- albumin ≤3 mg/dL
- bilirubin ≥3 mg/dL
These are combined into stages:
- stage A: 0 criteria
- stage B: 1-2 criteria
- stage C: 3-4 criteria
Higher stages were correlated with a poorer prognosis.
History and etymology
The staging classification was published by K Okuda et al in 1985.
- 1. Okuda K, Ohtsuki T, Obata H et-al. Natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma and prognosis in relation to treatment. Study of 850 patients. Cancer. 1985;56 (4): 918-28. Pubmed citation