Orbital apex syndrome
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At the time the article was created Mostafa El-Feky had no recorded disclosures.View Mostafa El-Feky's current disclosures
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Orbital apex syndrome, also known as Jacod syndrome, is a constellation of clinical findings, presenting as a result of several potential pathologies that compress or otherwise affect structures passing through the orbital apex.
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Presentation is according to the structures affected 1:
- cranial nerves III, IV, and VI: ophthalmoplegia, proptosis, and ptosis
- ophthalmic (V1) division of the trigeminal nerve: ipsilateral hypoesthesia of the forehead, upper eyelid, and cornea
- optic nerve (II): visual deficit that can lead to blindness which is the major finding in differentiating between this syndrome and superior orbital fissure syndrome and cavernous sinus syndrome.
- trauma: usually fractures involving the orbital apex
- infection: orbital cellulitis, subperiosteal abscess of the orbit
- inflammatory: Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, sarcoidosis
- vascular lesions: ophthalmic artery aneurysm, carotid-cavernous fistula
- developmental: fibrous dysplasia and neurofibromatosis
- neoplastic: extension of intracranial tumors or intraorbital tumors, lymphoma, and metastasis
- endocrine: thyroid ophthalmopathy
- others: sino-nasal mucocele, foreign body, iatrogenic, intra-orbital dermoid, intra-orbital epidermoid
Treatment and prognosis
Prompt treatment is recommended to avoid serious complications, as optic nerve compression can result in optic nerve ischemia and atrophy, and subsequent vision loss. Treatment would be according to the etiology. For compressive disorders, decompressive surgery is usually needed 2.
- 1. Goyal P, Lee S, Gupta N et al. Orbital Apex Disorders: Imaging Findings and Management. Neuroradiol J. 2018;31(2):104-25. doi:10.1177/1971400917740361 - Pubmed
- 2. Chen C & Chen Y. Traumatic Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome: Current Management. Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr. 2010;3(1):9-16. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1249369 - Pubmed
- 3. Borchard N & Nayak J. Orbital Apex Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(17):e23. doi:10.1056/nejmicm1703770
- 4. Badakere A & Patil- Chhablani P.
Orbital Apex Syndrome: A Review. EB. 2019;Volume 11:63-72. doi:10.2147/eb.s180190